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全民学英语英美文化篇一

英美文化英语简答

1、What was the British Empire?What do you know about it?In what way is the Empire still felt in British and in the international field?and how are the old colonies connected at present?

(大英帝国是什么?你知道些什么呢?以何种方式是帝国还觉得在英国和在国际领域吗?目前,旧殖民地是如何连接的?)

1)The British Empire comprised the dominions,colonies,protectorates,mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United kingdom.

大英帝国的领土组成,殖民地,保护国、授权和其他领土或由英国统治。

2)The effect of the old imperial role loes in 4 aspects.First,Britain still have a close relationship with the countries which uesd to be a part of empire in a organization called Commonwealth of Nations.Second,Britain had been a member of European Union since 1973,which is more important today in Britain's international relationship.Third,Britain is still a relatively wealthy country and member of the Group of Seven large developed economies.Fourth,the obvious effect lies in the make-up population.Immigration from some of those Commonwealth countries has produced a population which 1 in 20 are of non-European ethnicity.

旧帝国的影响作用卫矛在4个方面。首先,英国仍有密切关系的国家

以前是帝国的一部分在一个名为英联邦的组织。第二,英国是欧盟的一员,自1973年以来,这是今天在英国的国际关系更重要。第三,英国仍然是一个相对富裕的国家,七国集团(大型发达经济体的成员。第四,在于人口构成明显的影响。从一些英联邦国家移民产生了人口1在20个非欧洲的种族。

2、What are some of the characteristics of the British constitutional monarchy?How has the English monarchy evolved gradually to the present constitutional monarchy? 什么是一些英国君主立宪制的特点吗?英国君主如何逐步发展到现在的君主立宪制吗?

1)The characteristics are as follows.First,it is the oldest institution of government in the world.Second,the Queen reigns but does not rule and the country is really run by Government led by Prime Minister.Third,the parliament is the right center of the country. 特点如下。首先,它是世界上最古老的政府机构。第二,女王统治但不规则和国家是由由总理领导的政府。第三,国家议会的权利中心。

2)The Civil war set the rights of the Parliament.The monarch was kept but his power was limited.The constitution was set up to guarantee rights of people.

南北战争议会的权利。国王一直但他的权力是有限的。宪法成立担保权利的人。

3)What are the three big parties in the Uk?What are some

of the similarties and dissimilarities between the three parties?

英国三大政党是什么?有什么三方之间的相似与不同?

1)The Conservative party,the labor party,the Liberal Democratic party.

2)Similarities and dissimilarities.

Similarities

First,they all support the capitalist sysem.Second,they all are the active participants and supporters of representative democracy.Tird,tehy share some similar belief in their political and socio-economic ideology.

Dissimilarities

These 3 parties represent the interests of different economic policies duing their administration so that they have different opinions on government's role in social econmy.

First,Liberal Democratic party emphasize the need to change the Britian's constitutional arrangements to make the government more democratic and accountable.Second,labor party believes that a society should be relatively equal in economic terms and that the government should redistribute the wealth between the rich and the poor and provide a range of public services.Third,Conservative party is basically the party of

individual,protecting the individual's right to acquire wealth and spend it as he or she wants.

1)保守党、工党、自由民主党。

2)相似和不同

相同之处

首先,他们都支持资本主义法。其次,他们都是代议制民主的积极参与者和支持者。厌,他分享一些相似的信仰在他们的政治和社会意识形态。

不同点

这三方代表不同利益的经济政策引起他们的政府,他们有不同的意见政府在社会经济发展中的作用。

首先,自由民主党强调需要改变英国的宪法安排使政府更民主和负责任。第二,工党认为,在经济方面应该相对平等的社会,政府应该重新分配财富的富人和穷人之间,并提供一系列的公共服务。第三,保守党基本上是个人的聚会,保护个人的权利获得财富和花是他或她想要的。

4、What are the three main areas in national economy?Describe the development of each of the three areas inthe UK economy.

国民经济的三个主要领域是什么?描述每个三个领域的发展在英国经济。{全民学英语英美文化}.

1)The three main areas are primary industry,secondary industry and tertiary industry or services.

三个主要地区第一产业、第二产业和第三产业或服务。

2)Primary industies:suchas agriculture,fishing and mining.Secondary indutries,which manufacture complex goods from those primary products.Tertiary industries,often described as services,such as banking,insurance,tourism,and the selling of goods.

主要工业部门:如农业、渔业和矿业。二次受到,与初级产品生产复杂的产品。第三产业,通常被描述为服务,比如银行、保险、旅游、商品的销售。

First,agricultural sector is small but efficient,during the1960s,oil and gas were discovered under the North sea,with the extraction of North Sea oil and gas that sarted in the 1970s,until the 2000s the UK was self suffcient in energy,and the UK was expected to become a major importer of oil and gas by 2015.Second,a high-technology engineering industry has developed around the motor-racing business,and the UK is also the world's sixth largest manufacture by output.Third,Britain is a major international provider of services,accounting for about 10 percent of the world's exports of services.

首先,农业是小而高效,在60,石油和天然气被发现在北海,北海石油和天然气的开采,萨尔在1970年代,直到2000年代英国自我得到能源,和英国将在2015年成为一个主要的石油和天然气进口国。第二,高科

全民学英语英美文化篇二

每日英语+英美文化习俗+推荐书目

每日英语

1. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦)

2. Sometimes it lasts in love but sometimes it hurts instead. 有时候爱情能永远,但有时又如此伤人。《吸血鬼日记》

3. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰)

4. Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference. 态度是小事,但影响大不同。(丘吉尔)5. There's a crack in everything.That's how the light gets in. 万物皆有裂痕,那是光照进的地方。

6. Penny wise, pound foolish. 贪小便宜吃大亏。

7. Do something today that your future self will thank you for. 让未来的你,感谢今天的你所付出的努力。

文化习俗

英国的文化习俗 一、生活中的改变

在英国,成人平均每周22小时从事全日工作或全日教育,并以相同数量的时间用于家务劳动。而从事家务劳动的人的性别仍以妇女为最高,但妇女参加工作的也越来越多。据国家统计局最新统计,妇女参加工作的比例45%。在非体力工作部门,妇女占一半,而在服务行业,妇女则占一半多。

近几年来,英国家庭的消费格局发生了很大的变化。居民用于娱乐和教育的消费不断增加。其支出内容为购买收音机、电视机、电话、电脑和其它耐用品。同时,这部分消费还用于租录像机和音乐磁带,购买文体用品,以及教育投资等。也就是说,现在英国人的生活方式,更加注重生活质量,追求精神享受,并渐渐摆脱不良的生活习惯,如吸烟、酗酒等。

二、追求简单、舒适的生活

西服可以称得上是英国的国服,但是,虽然上班族西装革履,甚至在重要场合,男士身着燕尾服,女士身着低胸晚礼服,但是,很多老百姓日常喜欢穿休闲服,式样简单、舒服合体。

英国人的饮食习惯亦式样简单,注重营养。早餐通常是麦片粥冲牛奶或一杯果汁,涂上黄油的烤面包片,熏咸肉或煎香肠、鸡蛋。中午,孩子们在学校吃午餐,大人的午餐就在工作地点附近买上一份三明治,就一杯咖啡,打发了事。只有到周末,英国人的饭桌上才会丰盛一番。通常主菜是肉类,如烤鸡肉、烤牛肉、烤鱼等。蔬菜品种繁多,像卷心菜、新鲜豌豆、土豆、胡萝卜等。蔬菜一般都不再加工,装在盘里,浇上从超市买回的现成调料便食用。主菜之后总有一道易消化的甜食,如烧煮水果、果料布丁、奶酪、冰激凌等。

三、公园与绿地

英国气候温和、湿润,一年四季适合各种花草树木的生长。政府在制定市区规划时,几乎在每一个生活小区都专门规划出一大块绿地或公园,供人们休息或散步,为孩子们嬉戏提供空间。由于冬季阴雨多雾,因此夏天的太阳对英国人来说特别宝贵。在阳光灿烂的周末、假日,公园里、沙滩上到处躺满了享受太阳浴的人们,更有英国人以把自己的皮肤晒成棕色发亮为时髦。

四、自己动手做

英国人喜欢在周末假日里自己动手修缮房屋,制作家具,装修房间,修整花园,甚至自己制作陶瓷工艺品,几乎无所不能。这不仅仅出于经济考虑,而是把此看作是培养个人技能,陶冶个人情操,及休闲的生活方式之一。通过自己动手做,能使自己的居室更加舒适,更具个性化。

五、酷爱运动

据英国国家统计局最新统计,有占总人口72%的男公民和57%的女公民,在4周之内,至少参加一项体育运动。青少年参加校外体育活动的比例更高。在众多的体育运动项目中,骑自行车、踢足球、打网球、游泳和滑旱冰鞋,是众多男女共同爱好的项目,而每天散步两英里或更长的距离,一直是流行的运动。

六、丰富多彩的假日

每年外出旅游度假对大多数英国百姓来说,无论时间长短,国内或国外,都是生活中必不可少的。除旅游外,英国人在周末、银行节、复活节等五花八门的假日中的娱乐和消遣节目更是丰富多彩。环境优雅的电影院、音乐厅、歌剧院和夏季露天音乐会更为不同阶层、不同年龄和不同口味的人们准备了各式各样的节目。数目众多的博物馆、名胜古迹更为人们提供了最佳的休闲去处。

七、如饥似渴的读者

在英国242,500平方公里的国土上,遍布图书馆和阅览室约5,000所(包括专业图书馆、院校图书馆300多所)。无论白天或晚上,图书馆内常常是座无虚席。借书、查阅资料、浏览报纸、写文章的人有学生、老人、公司雇员,乃至工人。

美国风俗文化

从重视阶级地位的国家来到美国的游客,或许觉得美国并不特别尊敬显要人物。美国人向人鞠躬致敬,不会因对方的身份地位不同而特别殷勤,会多鞠几个躬。不论在家或搭乘汽车,美国人通常不会要求贵宾坐上特定的座位。礼让的情形很少,你所能见到的礼让情形,可能是请吃饭的时候,让贵宾坐在主人或女主人的右面。在某些国家里,汽车后座是上座。但在美国,私用汽车里驾驶座旁边的位子才是上座,一半是因为司机往往就是主人自己,另一半是因为坐上前面那个座位,可以清晰地看到车外的景象。

体语

你知道吗?两个人谈话,彼此所站的距离,随文化不同而异。在一些国家里,人们交谈时可能站得很近,谈话下去,两张面孔常常越来越贴近。根据研究所得,美国人谈话如果跟他人站得太近,就觉得不舒服;他们最合意的距离是五十公分左右。另有一些国家的人,还喜欢站得比五十公分更远一点交谈。

你会注意到美国人的另一个社交习惯,就是他们跟其他许多民族一样,说话时往往做手势。他们谈天之际,可能拍拍对方的肩膀,以示友好,或者轻拍小孩的脑袋,以示亲爱。依照其他国家某些民族风俗来说,这种表达法可能不受欢迎,尤其是用左手来表达。许多美国人都用惯左手;在美国左右手没轻重之分,不论用左用右,都没有什么不敬。不过,在这一类的小事上,如果对方在社交场合中用双手的用法令你不快的话,你只须略加犹豫,你的美国朋友往往就明白你的意思了。

静居独处

美国人无静居独处之念,往往是游客难以了解的。美国人不是围墙高筑、重门深锁的国民。他们的院子通常连在一起,连篱笆亦付阙如。他们通常不经邀请,也不先通个电话,就互相过访;他们在办公室工作,总是大门敞开。

他们无静居独处的念头,也许是本国历史发展的结果。美国是个幅员广阔的国家。美国从无筑墙之城,美国人也用不着防犯邻邦。美国在初期居民极少,所以邻居非常重要,不能把他们摒诸门墙之外。邻居在艰苦创业时会提供保护和帮忙,他们彼此守望相助。

从美国早期历史发展出来的这种不愿独处,只求坦然相对的愿望,游客可以从许多小的地方观察到:美国家庭可能有几间无门的房间或只有玻璃墙。假若你看见有人走出你的房间忘了关门,别认为他粗鲁无礼。帮他们,让他们知道你喜欢把门关上,要不然你就得适应新方式了。总之,你对于彼此间的不同,要忍耐。

沉默

美国人人都不喜欢沉默。他们会侃侃而谈,以免谈话中止,纵使片刻的停顿,亦非所愿。假若你很久没作声,美国人就会尽量设法让你加入谈论。他们也许问你是不是身体不舒适,要不要他们帮忙。不过,美国人如果不同意你所说的话,可能默不作声。他们不出声,未必表示他们同意你的意见,而是表示他们认为同你继续辩论下去是没有礼貌的。

说话爽直

游客到了美国,都发觉美国人不说“废话”。这就是说,美国人答话的时候,往往简单到只说“是”、“不是”、“当然”,或极普通的一个“对”字。但简单的答语并不表示美国人怠慢、粗鲁或脑筋简单。美国人平时匆匆忙忙,跟你打招呼不外一个“嗨”。真的,你在美国居留期间,将一再听到这个招呼,几乎人人都说,不论地位、年龄、职业。不过,听惯了比较长的、漂亮话的人,也许要经过一段时间,才会对美国人的“坦言”不当一回事。

美国人感到难为情时,就实话直说。遇到别人特别客气的称赞或道谢时,美国人可能难为情而不知道该答什么话好。他们不是有意粗鲁无礼,他们其实是喜欢别人称赞他们的。除了特殊的假日,例如圣诞节,美国人通常不送礼。因此,你会发现美国人接到礼物的时候很难为情,他们如果没有东西回礼,就更加如此。他们大体上是个热情不拘礼节的民族。 介绍

美国社会风俗跟别国社会风俗大不相同的一点,就是名字的称呼。美国人不重视“地位”,尤其是社会地位。大多数美国人都不愿意自己因年龄或社会地位的关系而特别受人尊敬,这样会令他们觉得不自在。许多美国人甚至觉得“先生”“太太”“小姐”的称呼太客套了。不论年龄,大家都喜欢直呼其名。“别称我史密斯太太,叫我萨莉好了。”称呼名字,往往是表示友善亲近。不过,你如果觉得直呼其名不好,尽可用比较客气的称呼。你可以向对方笑笑,说你已经习惯成自然,初与人见面的时候总是比较拘谨,过一阵就会直呼名字了。

介绍的时候,往往是连名带姓:“玛丽·史密斯,这位是约翰·琼思。”遇到这种情形,你可以自己决定该称呼那位女士为“玛丽”还是“史密斯小姐”。有时你们两人交谈,开头是称呼对方的姓,但没过多久,其中一人或彼此就直呼对方的名字了。你尽可自己选择,假若你不愿意一下子就直称别人的头字,而要依照你自己的习俗称呼别人,谁也不会觉得你没有礼貌。 你可能会注意到,美国人聚在一起聊天的时候,几乎从不提彼此的头衔。如果你平时听惯了不离头衔的谈话,就会觉得美国人说话不客气,不近人情。你高兴的话,尽可依你本国的习惯称呼别人的名衔。美国人听你这样说话,只是觉得有趣,觉得特别。不过,假若他们谈话时不称头衔,你可别不高兴。

头衔

社会阶级的差异,在美国是不受重视的,所以美国人没有家庭世袭的头衔,虽则他们对于用惯了头衔的外来客也会以他的头衔相称。美国人反而有时用职业上的头衔。这种头衔有别于家庭头衔,因为它是靠自己“挣来”的,而不是由祖先传下的。有头衔的职业,最常见的是法官、高级政府官员、军官、医生、教授和宗教领袖。这里且举几个例子:哈利法官、史密斯参议员、克拉克将军、布朗医生、格林博士(教授)、怀特神父、科恩老师(对犹太人的尊称用语)、格雷主教等。

至于从事其他行业的人,则称他为“先生”、“小姐”、“太太”(音密西斯)。“Ms.”(音密丝)对已婚和未婚的女士都可适用,近年来在美国已甚为通行。假若你跟一个美国人第一次碰面,不晓得他的头衔,但又要对他表示尊敬,那么可用“先生”或“夫人”称呼。被你这样称呼的人也许会想到你不知道该用什么称呼,于是会把正确的名称告诉你。不过,一个人除非是从事某种特殊职业,否则正式的头衔是不常用的。美国人注重友好的、不拘礼节的关系,而不注重地位头衔。美国人相信自己即使直称一个人的名字,仍一样可以对他表示尊敬。 服务

头衔之外,美国生活中还有别的事情,是平时受女佣、司机、厨师侍候惯了的游客,可能发觉和他在本国的情形大不相同。有的游客也许想到自己是有身份的人,但在美国所受的待遇即跟普通人一样,因此觉得自己被怠慢了。不过,美国是个“样样自己动手”的国家。一般美国人,不管是医生、教授、商人、律师,都是自己煮饭、洗衣、上市场买东西或做其他工作。在美国,服务是要钱的;谁都可以“买”服务,只要付得起钱就成,地位是不相干的。一个人不管干的是什么职业,如果自己动手做家务,绝对不会被人认为有什么不对。其实,许多美国人都花得起钱请厨师、司机,但他们不那么做。他们宁愿享受家庭宁静,如果家里有个请来的帮手,宁静感可能多少就会丧失掉。也有人宁愿把钱花在旅行或其他方面,而不愿付出高昂的美国工资雇人帮忙料理家务。

找漱洗间

一位新到美国的游客,最近有人问他,在美国第一天最麻烦的事情是什么,他毫不犹豫地答:“找漱洗间。”

有些国家在大街上有明显可见或在小建筑物里面标志明显的公众漱洗间,美国可没有。在美国,公众漱洗间均设于加油站(都是干干净净的,免费的,不过可能要向站员索取钥匙)。机场、公共汽车站、火车站、餐馆、图书馆、大商店、戏院,以及一切欢迎大众光临的场所,都有漱洗间,你还可以走进任何一家旅馆借用“女漱洗间”或“男漱洗间”,即使你不是这家旅馆的住客。

不要被漱洗间门上的名称弄糊涂了。有时上面写着“男”或“女”以及“女士”或“夫人”,或干脆叫“漱洗间”。有的在门上可能画个图形或其他标志,以示男女之别,餐馆尤其采用这种方式。女用漱洗间有时称为“化妆间”。欧洲人使用的“方便处”或“W.C”,在美国是少用的,但一般人都明白是什么意思。

对你国家的认识

你可能会遇到一些对贵国知之甚少的美国人。假若有这种情形,请容忍他们。很遗憾,美国学校很少教授他国的文化风俗。美国东西两面是大洋,跟其他国家隔得很远。结果,美国人对于其他国家的文化和不同的工作方式都不大熟悉;这在其他国家也是常见的。假若美国人用你所不熟知的办法来帮你的忙,假若他们把贵国误认为是千里以外的另一个国家,请多包涵。跟别的国家相比,美国发展成为现代国家的时间极短,只有300年的光景。美国人一直忙于本土的成长,忙着修建公路,忙着建立城市,忙着为千百万的孩子制定免费教育制度,忙着发明,忙着发现,忙着为全球的利益而发展。在这300年间,有大部分的时候全国的注意力只集中在美国本身,而不在世界。直到二次世界大战(1939-1945),美国人才开始对世界其他地区发生兴趣。

社会习俗

美国人的祖先来自全球各地,所以在美国境内“认可的”社会习俗,比有些国家的社会习俗要多得多。因此,到美国旅游的人如果要照自己国家的风俗习惯去做,也不必觉得难为情或有什么不对。虽然美国人不拘礼节,但是,如果你愿意在社交场合中穿着打扮得很正规,你尽管照你自己的方式做好了。你周围的人一定会接受的。

不过,你能够对美国一般的习俗做详尽的了解,也是有所裨益的。当然,这个题目范围太广,不能在这里详加探讨,下面所谈的,只是你访问美国时可能会遇到的一些常见情形。 有些私人问题,在甲国可以提出来谈,但在乙国则不应该谈。比方说,美国人可能会问你:“你在什么地方工作?”“你有几个孩子?”“你的房子有多大?”“你有没有假期?”在美国人看来,这些问题不算是纯粹的私人问题。他们往往问这些话,不外是要了解你与他之间的共同点,或作为交谈的开始。请你明白,问这些话的本意都是友善的,问者是对你表示关心,不是对你无礼。

美国人自己也是这样相识的。由于美国人在美国时常搬迁,这类问题就是他们每年认识许多新朋友的常用办法。

有些国家的人们几乎终生未离开过一个市镇,所以社会风俗颇为不同。游客到了这些国家,可能要过了许久,才会有人向他问起家庭、职业、居所等私人问题。但是在美国,样样事都快,美国人没时间讲究礼节。他们一定要在今天认识你,因为不久他们可能又要搬到遥

全民学英语英美文化篇三

英美文化期末论文:英美间的文化差异(英文版)

The Difference between England and

America

Abstract: the paper is to show the difference between American and English in several aspects, such as geographical location, cultural environment and the most important part, the language.

Key words: Culture Environment,Education,food,Table Manner

Introduction

The paper deals with the The Difference between England and America.Culture is a complex, including knowledge and belief, art, morals, law, custom, and members of the society who acquired as any other capabilities and habits.

1. Culture Environment{全民学英语英美文化}.

Britain is a traditional European country with long historical tradition continuity, and there had been a hierarchy in British society for a long time. And in UK there always has been a monarchy. So, the British likes to remember past times and old acquaintances, tends to be conservative, and behaves like a gentleman. All these need culture accumulation, and these character and qualities can’t be made if the country is without a long history. However, the U.S. is precisely without a very profound historical accumulation and is a young country. So, the Americans dare to innovate and stress emphasis on personal value. On the other hand, in the United States, there are not a lot of constrains. They feel free to make bold innovations.In addition, there is a great difference in the population composition of the two countries. The United States is a nation of immigrants, people comes from all countries and regions in the world. So, the culture of the United States shows different characteristics. People in American can accept and absorb all the culture factors all over the world. U.S. attitude toward foreign cultures is an open. However, comparing to the United States, the structure of the UK population appears to be simplex.

2.Geographical Location

The geographic location of the United Kingdom and the United States are different, one in European continent, one continent of the America. The United Kingdom, after a long period of development, has been very wealthy, so they are decent and conservative. But at the beginning of the United States, the United States is in a completely unfamiliar and barren continent, the first settlers were called pioneers, so they have to have the courage to take risks. If they do not have the spirit of adventure, they will not be able to survive, not to mention development, the hard environment eventually made the American spirit. In addition, the difference of European culture and American cultural contributes to the difference of the two countries. English suffers from the influence from other European countries, like France, Germany, but American was influenced by the culture of the other countries in American continent as well as the native Indian.{全民学英语英美文化}.

3. Education

From the educational philosophy of the education system in the United States, there are the characteristics of diversity and openness, international and flexibility, which enable the U.S. Department of Education to ensure educational equity and equality of opportunity to receive education, and take full advantage of the strengths of educational objects, so education is the dynamic, vibrant in American. It also reflects what the Americans have been in pursuit, the freedom and equality. British education has a rigorous style of study and impeccable the education system. The UK has a strict quality control system, the teaching quality evaluation and the research Assessment from all the school in England are announced to the world, higher

education institutions in the UK will be checked in a regular routine. This rigorous attitude is also reflected in the assessment of the student. Many students can’t get a degree if they fail in passing the assessment. Ethics and professionalism of English

teachers ensure the quality of its education. British education also reflects British conservative and rigorous character.

4.Traditional English food and confluent American food

{全民学英语英美文化}.

British food, as we know, is very traditional. They don’t used to change their habit of food very frequently. Like other northern European cuisines, it majors heavily on meats, dairy products, wheat and root vegetables and a diet conductive to manual labor and red-faced citizens. The nineteenth century idea of a varied diet was one with different sorts of meat in it. Milk and vegetables were regarded as not only uneatable raw, but highly dangerous until boiled thoroughly. To a certain extent this is

understandable, in an era without refrigeration, when typhoid and cholera could strike even the wealthy; over-cooking everything was probably a sensible course to take. People in English have a special eating habit. Firstly, the main meal in England seems to be eaten in the evening. Secondly, a big English breakfast is not something that many English people seem eat. Most of them have a light meal of cornflakes or toast and marmalade, orange juice and coffee rather than the eggs, sausages, bacon, bread, mushrooms and tomatoes. Fish has always been an important food in Britain. There are jellied eels, kippers or bloaters or crabs and so on. But the most popular of all is fish and chips, splashed with vinegar and eaten in the street out of a paper bag . British have a habit of drinking tea. “A nice cup of tea, the stronger the better”is supposed to be the British cure for all problems. Although many different drinks can be found in Britain, tea is undoubtedly the favorite at any time of the day and is the essential basis of afternoon tea. This is a meal that can vary from tea and a biscuit to the cooked high tea with lots of cakes served in the north. In the south west of

England it is usually a cream tea, with home-made scones, strawberry jam and piles of thick clotted cream. People vary seldom have the thin cucumber sandwiches described in novels.

American cuisine : The United States is a land of delicious eating. The two concepts essential to understanding US food are regionalism and diversity, accent on the latter.

After all, Italian food differs from province to province and city to city as well. But key themes run through Italy’s food from south to north simply because its people have such strong roots in the Italian soil. Not so with the US. A nation of newcomers, its food reflects its origins. Long before Europeans set foot on American soil,

vibrant and healthy civilizations nurtured themselves off the bounty of the land. They taught the settlers to plant the holy trinity of Native American cuisine—corn, beans and squash. The settlers returned the favor by nearly exterminating their benefactors, but those three foods played a vital in defining American cuisine. They retain their importance today across the continent—grits, cornbread in the South, tortillas and pinto beans in the Southwest, baked beans and succotash in the Northeast and

pumpkin pie just about everywhere for Thanksgiving. American cuisine has come a long way since the early days of corn, beans and squash and along the way it has spawned some unforgettable food. Nonetheless the US remains a great place for great eating. Delicious regional styles remain a great place for great eating. Delicious regional styles remain and the new blood of immigrants sparks the imagination of the finest chefs while making for great inexpensive food in the cities. So come and get it.

5. Table Manner

At table, the British people pays special attention to table manners, such as, they should not talk at table, should not beat tableware as well. They have a strict

requirement on how to use knives and forks. While Americans on the relatively few occasions will do so, they like fast and convenient food, they do not require delicate or luxury dinner but they pay more attention to popular food. American favorite food is known as KFC, McDonald's and pizza hut, the junk food. This diet keeps the American obesity rate high. But from the diet habits, it is not difficult for us to find that the American do everything vigorously and resolutely and do not stick to the trifles.

Conclusion

In a word, there are lots of different conventions in the British and the

American’s culture. These conventions can be easy found in their daily life. They are all the symbols of the society development. They made us know a lot about the culture in the European countries. So if you have any interests on it, try to learn something about that and I’m sure we can benefit from it more . we can see that the British are sensitive, restrained, conservative, they tend to be rational rigorous and gentlemanly. By comparison, Americans are warm and cheerful, bold and frank. They are with a spirit of adventure and innovation.

Reference

[1]Brown, G. and G. Yule. Discourse Analysis[M]. London: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

[2]Deng,Yanchang&Liu,Runqing. language and culture[M].Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1989.

[3]Hu,Wenzhong&C.H.Grove Encountering the Chinese[M]. Yarmouth: Intercutural Press, Inc 1991.

[4Maryanne&Joann&Edward.American ways—An Introduction to American Culture[M]. Beijing: The World Books Publishing House , 2006.

[5]Xu,Lisheng.Intercultural Communication in English[M]. Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press , 2004.

[6]Yang,Min&Wang,Keqi&Wang, Hengzhang.An Outline of the Traditional Chinese Culture [M].Beijing: China Ocean University Publishing House, 2003.

[7]Zhang , Ailin.Intercultural Communication[M]. Chongqing: Chongqing University Publishing House 2003.

[8]高一虹.语言文化差异的认识与超越[M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2000-2.

全民学英语英美文化篇四

让英美文化渗透于小学英语课堂

让英美文化渗透于小学英语课堂

【摘要】 小学阶段是一个人的思想和情感形成的启蒙阶段,在这个阶段里,小学生从各科的教学中开始他们成长的步伐。作为小学英语教师,我们有必要让英美文化渗透于小学英语课堂,帮助学生了解中西文化差异,提高文化素质,有针对性地培养他们得体的跨文化交际能力,帮助他们学会在多元世界里生存和发展。本文将在跨文化教学的重要性和小学跨文化教学的操作两个方面提出一些肤浅的看法和建议。

【关键词】 英美文学 渗透 方法 跨文化交际

小学英语文化渗透虽然只是英美文化背景知识传授的尝试,但它毕竟是跨文化教学的雏形。我们都知道,语言是一个民族文化的载体。我们学语言实际上是在学蕴藏在字、词、句、篇、章里面的包括历史地理、风土人情、传统习俗、生活方式、文学艺术、行为规范、价值观念在内的诸多社会和人文方面的东西。可想,如果我们简单地停留在语言本身的层面,一味地传授语音,词汇,语法知识,一味地强调语言的准确性,使学生不顾场合、时间、交际对象及其他因素的差异。这势必造成学生形成“`汉语思维+英语形式”的不良学习和思维习惯,而且他们很有可能在以后真实的语言交际中会遭遇一些文化冲突,造成不同程度的尴尬。因此,我们应该发现不同语言交流产生的误解,在教学中突破中西文化差异,把英美文化渗透作为英语教学的一个重要方面,从英语教学的角度引入英语跨文化交际的有关背景知识。下面我将从两个方面阐述。

一、英美文化渗透于小学英语课堂的重要性

《英语课程标准》指出:“ 语言与文化有密切的联系,语言是文化的重要载体”,教师应当“努力使学生在学习英语的过程中了解外国文化”,帮助他们“不断拓展文化视野”,培养“跨文化交际的意识和能力”。另外,“接触和了解英美国家文化有益于对英语的理解和使用”,可以帮助学生“了解并尊重其他国家民族的优秀文化传统,更好地理解并热爱中华民族的优秀文化传统”,不仅如此,还可帮助学生“了解文化差异,培养爱国主义精神,增强世界意识”。因此,为了达到英语课程目标,我们必须重视英美文化在课堂上的渗透。这样做至少有以下好处。

首先,文化背景知识的渗透有助于学生学习其他学科。小学英语课本(新标准外研版)选材广泛,内容涉及历史、地理、美术、经济、自然等各个领域,教学中如果注重有关背景知识的渗透,我认为有助于扩大学生的知识面,提高学生的文化素质。

其次,文化背景知识的渗透有利于提高学生的英语理解能力。影响英语理解的有两大因素:一是大脑对文字符号的感知程度与速度,另一个是“眼球背后的东西”在起重要作用。所谓“眼球背后的东西”,就是指学习者的文化背景知识。如果一个人的文化背景知识比较丰富,那么他对语言理解的速度就比较快,程度也比较高,反之亦然。

最后,文化背景知识的渗透有利于提高学生的英语交际能力。交际能力的培养是让学生在与对方交流中,根据话题、语境、文化背景中讲出得体、恰当的话。然而,语言的得体性离不开文化背景知识,

我们从日常的交际错误中就可以看到这一点。交际错误分为两种,一是语言错误,二是文化错误。现代外语教学论认为文化错误比语言错误更严重。因为在与英语本族人交谈时,他们往往对外族人在语言、语法方面的错误比较宽容,与此相反,违反说话规则则被认为是不礼貌的,甚至是冒犯的。

二、小学英语课堂英美文化渗透的几点建议

词汇教学时的渗透。英语词汇的文化内涵是经过长期积淀而成的。一些很有文化内涵的成语、惯用语、谚语、俗语和格言等都来自成语典故、神话传说、文学典故、圣经故事或史实,教师在词汇教学过程中可为学生介绍其背景知识,让学生了解其来龙去脉,以便他们理解其深刻内涵。如:英语的星期五是friday,英美人很多都信仰基督教,而耶稣受难的日子正是星期五。因此就有了friday face,意指“愁眉苦脸”;black friday,意指“灾难的一天”。而星期日sunday,会使人想到耶稣复活、做礼拜、过节,常常有神圣、欢乐等含义。这样,人们就把最漂亮的衣服说成是sunday 。英国是一个岛国,历史上航海业曾一度世界领先,因此他们离不开水,而汉民族在亚洲大陆生活繁衍,人们的生活离不开土地。所以比喻花钱浪费,大手大脚,英汉语就不同,英语是spend money like water,而汉语是“挥金如土”。又如欧美人十分喜欢养狗,认为狗是人类最忠实的朋友,不会背叛。在此文化背景下,英语中的dog用以指代忠实的伙伴,有褒义色彩,lucky dog就是幸运儿的意思,和字面意思大相径庭。可见,同一个词在不同的文化背景中意义不同。我们要想掌握和运用一种语言,就

必须了解产生这种语言的社会背景,学习这个社会的文化,否则,就无法正确理解和运用这种语言。因此,在词汇教学中老师要善于抓住机会,让课堂充满文化气息,满足学生的心理需求,提高课堂效率。

课文教学时的渗透。新标准外研版教材所选的内容具有很强的文化气息,不仅教参给老师提供了丰富的文化背景教学素材,而且多媒体课件还准备了适合小学生学习的文化背景材料。我们教师应当有意识地去利用甚至仔细地去挖掘这些内容,为我们教学所用。这无疑将对学生深入了解课文起到重要作用。在教学过程中,教师应该以解决问题和完成任务为目的,在交换信息的同时,让学生充分参与,大胆实践,体验中西方文化的差异。比如:对收受礼物,接受邀请或获得帮助时的感激,两种语言是大有差别的。对于别人送来的礼物,中国人往往要推辞一番,接受以后一般也不当面打开,而在英美文化中,人们对别人所送的礼品;一般都会当面打开称赞一番,并且欣然道谢。对于别人的赞美,中国人通常用否定说法以示谦虚,但英美人往往以thank you来接受。外语学习本身是枯燥和难于理解的,但因有了文化背景而生动、鲜活。

创设真实的语言环境,激发学习热情。现在我们面临最大的困难在于,我们的学生缺乏必要的像学习母语那样的语言环境。因此,给学生营造一个浓浓的具有西方文化氛围的语言环境就显得十分必要。教师应千方百计为学生创造语言环境,并采取寓教于乐的形式,激发学生学习英语的兴趣,调动他们学习的积极性,让他们在轻松愉快的气氛中学习和掌握语言基础知识及文化背景知识,从而提高初步运用

英语进行交际的能力。我们可以利用课堂内外活动时间采取对话、表演、唱歌、看电影、做游戏、开批party等多种形式,为他们创造学习环境,使他们在活动中学习和提高。{全民学英语英美文化}.

文化背景知识包罗万象,日常用语、专有名词、成语典故、民间谚语等有声语言和形体表情等无声语言,都能够反映出大量的文化背景知识。作为外语教师,我们自身也必须不断学习,不断提高自身的英美文化修养,我们可以通过结交外国朋友,阅读文学作品,观赏精采的外国电影录像,欣赏格调高雅的外文歌曲等各种渠道来了解外国文化。只有这样才能更好地让英美文化渗透在我们日常的教学活动之中。

总之,小学英语教学中应当切实加强文化背景知识的渗透,帮助学生了解中西文化的差异,提高学生的文化素养,同时给学生一双看世界的眼睛,使他们学会与来自不同社会背景、文化习俗、政治制度的国家的人们和谐共处,学会在一个多元化的世界里生存和发展,从而真正达到英语教学的目的。

全民学英语英美文化篇五

英美文化 - 选择

1. The British Isles are situated in the ___ of Europe.

A) northwest

2. The highland zone is an area of high hills and mountains in the ___ and ___ of Britain.

B) north ; west

3. The ___is sometimes called the backbone of England.

D) Pennine Chain

4. The ___River is the longest river in Britain.

D) Severn

5. ___ in Northern Ireland is the largest lake in the United Kingdom.

A) Lough Neagh

1. The seven Conurbations in Britain contain ___ of the population of the country.

B) one-third

2. The English people are descendants of ___.

C) Anglo-Saxons

3. Middle English took shape about a century after the ___ Conquest.

C) Norman

4. London dialect was once disseminated throughout the country NOT because London was a ___ center.

D) linguistic

5. Scotland has had a separate ____ system.

A)legal{全民学英语英美文化}.

1. Generally speaking, the British Parliament operates on a ___ system.

B) two-party

2. In Britain, the parliament general election is held every ___ years.

C) five

3. The policies of the Conservative Party are characterized by pragmatism and ___.

D) a belief in individual

4. The Labor Party affected the British society greatly in that it ___.

A) set up the National Health Service

5. Other countries have “citizens”. But in Britain people are legally described as ___

{全民学英语英美文化}.

B) subject

6. Elizabeth Ⅱ succeeded to the throne in ___

B) 1952

7. Which of the followings is not RIGHT to describe the Prime Minister?

D) The head of the country

8. The third largest political party in Britain is the ___

B) Liberal Party

1. The British economy achieved dominance by the ___

C) 1880s

2. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the UK economy?

C) There has been a period of steady decreasing of living standards.

3. Which of the following livestock has the biggest number in the UK?

D) Sheep

4. Which of the following used to be the last independent car company in the UK?

C) Germany and Russia

5. In the aerospace industry, which two countries are ahead of Britain?

B) The us and Russia

6. Which of the following is NOT a company in the energy sector?

B) ICI

1. What kind of secondary schools now receives the largest number of students?

C) Comprehensive schools

2. Which is incorrect to describe the independent schools?

C) They are free-free schools

3. Open University communicates with its students mainly by___

D) all of the above

4. Which of the following is a privately funded university in Britain?

D) The University of Buckingham

5. If a student wants to go to university in Britain, he will take the exam called___

A) General Certificate of Education – Advanced

1. Easter commemorates the ___

D) Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ

2. On which day is Halloween celebrate?

A) October 31

3. Where are the international tennis championship held?

B) Wimbledon

4. Which one in the following is famous for its literary and dramatic criticism?

D) Punch

5. Which one of the following is NOT particularly British Christmas tradition?

C) Eating chocolate eggs

1. ___ was the United Kingdom’s first woman Prime Minister

C) Margaret Thatcher D)Winston Spenser Churchill

2. Margaret Thatcher’s nickname is ___

B) the Iron Lady

全民学英语英美文化篇六

英美文化概况——2015-01-21

1. ―British history has been a history of invasion.‖ Please illustrate this point with the examples from the text. How did each of the invasions influence English culture?

British history has been a history of invasions. Before the first century AD Britain was made up of many tribal kingdoms of Celtic people: a powerful culture originating in central Europe. Then in 43AD Britain was invaded by the Roman empire, and England and Wales (though not Scotland or Ireland) became a part of the Roman empire for nearly 400 years. Two more groups of invaders were to come after the English: from the late 8th century on, raiders from Scandinavia, the ferocious Vikings, threatened Britain's shores….

2. What is the political problem in Northern Ireland?

Until 1921 the full name of the UK was "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland", not only "Northern Ireland", because the whole island of Ireland was politically integrated with Great Britain, and had been since 1801, while Britain's domination of the Irish dated back centuries even before that date. But Irish desires for an independent Irish state were never lost, and one of the key issues in late nineteenth century British politics was a campaign in parliament for what was called "home-rule"—Irish political control of Irish affairs. The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in 1914, but the process was overtaken by the First World War and was suspended for the duration of the war.

3. What were some of the causes of the American Revolution? Explain the Declaration of independence?

the causes of the American Revolution

(1), The French & Indian War (1756-1763)

The desire of England to levy more taxes on the colonies and the desire of the colonists to have more right and freedom made the conflicts intensified

(2), The Enlightenment

It provided the colonists with a theoretical & philosophical weapon against the British rule and marked the formation and maturity of the new nation

(3),The British Mercantilist Policy, such as Sugar Act, Currency Act, Stamp Act, Tea Act, etc.

(4),Boston Tea Party (1773)

In 1773, the British government passed the Tea Act, which permitted the British East India Company to sell tea directly to its agents in the colonies. This Act made many merchants angrier than ever with the British.

(5), Outbreak: The first shot in Lexington (April, 1775)

The Declaration of Independence (1776), drafted in June, 1776, is at once a national symbol of liberty and a monument to Jefferson as a statesman and author. In lofty eloquence and unforgettable phrasing, the document expressed the convictions in the hearts and minds of the American people.

4. Tell what you know about the British media.

British people usually read a national or local newspaper, watch TV, listen to the radio at their leisure time.

The British media plays an important role in British political system: inform the population about problems the country may be facing and what the government is doing to solve such problems. In engendering a national culture: people from different field all share the same experience, they could discuss what they had read or seen——British are all part of the British culture.

The British media has the following functions:

{全民学英语英美文化}.

• Provide people with information about political and social issues

• Provide weather reports

• Carry advertising

• Used for educational purposes

• Provide a forum for people to express their views

• Seek advice

• Give people entertainment

• Serve for the political and economic system

• Work as a monitor

5. How did the Cold War begin? What role did the US play in this?

There were deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions immediately after the Second World War.

(1) Underlying causes: (i) Ideological ; (ii) Economic (iii) Power rivalry

(2) Immediate Causes Leading to the Cold War: (i) Extension of Russian influence in Europe ; (ii) The reactions of the United States; (iii) Poor relations between the United States and the Soviet Union .

6. Discuss King John and the Great Charter.

King John is the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England. He was the king of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

The Great Charter has been also known as Magna Carta which King John was forced to sign in 1215. Its most important clauses were: no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; no freeman should be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of his property except by the law of the land; the Church should possess all its rights; London and other towns should retain their ancient rights. But the Great Charter said nothing about serfs. The Great Charter has been regarded as the foundation of English liberties, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the powers of the king.

7. What do you think of the British foreign relations?

The general direction of Britain’s foreign policy is mainly decided by the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Britain’s relationship with international institutions

1) one of the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council — Russia, China, the US, France and the UK

2) its membership in the European Union (Britain joined the European Economic Community in 1973, which has been called European Union since 1993. Britain’s participation in the EU remains controversial.)

3) involvement in NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was set up in 1949. The author believes that the purpose of NATO is to protect member states against aggression, to provide a foundation for security in Europe, and to provide a forum for transatlantic defense cooperation.)

4) a member of the Commonwealth, a voluntary association of states which is made up of mostly of former British colonies.

5. its relationship with the US. British and American policy-makers share the general ideas in many respects. However, Britain’s ―special relationship‖ with the US has gone through many ups and down.

8. Discuss the education system in the USA.

The federal government influences education and contributes to school’s development.practice it.All states require young people to attend schools. Every child in America is guaranteed up to 13 years of education

(1) Elementary Education--- Elementary School (grammar school)—from kindergarten to grade 8 .Almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: mathematics; language arts; penmanship(书法); science; social studies……

(2) Secondary education--- Junior high school/ Senior high school/ Vocational schools and technical school (prepare for occupations)

(3) Higher education in the USA began with the founding of Harvard College in 1636.1/3 high school graduators go on for higher education.There are four categories of higher education institutions: 1),the university; 2),the 4-year undergraduate institution: the college- most of which are not part of a university; 3),the technical training institution: learning variety of technical skills: hair styling, business accounting; 4),the 2-year, or community college.

9. How do you comment on the holidays and festivals in Britain? Many festivals and holidays in Britain are centuries old. Every town, village and hamlet in Britain has its own traditions, some involving months of careful planning and preparations of costumes and choreography, others requiring simply a worrying desire to make a complete and utter fool of oneself. There are a lot of holidays, such as Christmas, the Boxing Day, Easter, Bonfire Night (Guy Fawkes Night) ,etc.

10. Tell what you know about ―Football hooligans‖ and ―Wimbledon‖.

Football was invented in Britain. It is a rough fast game played in winter and early spring. Today, it is one of the most popular sports in Britain. Millions of people watch the FA Cup games. But in recent years, people are much concerned about football violence ―Football hooligans‖ are supporters of rival teams. They sometimes clash before, during and after matches and occasionally run riot through the town, breaking windows and beating each other up.

Tennis was invented in Britain and owes its origins to the church. Wimbledon is a suburb in London. In Wimbledon, the world’s best players gather to compete in the annual international tennis championship. It is one of the major events of the British

sporting calendar and probably the most famous tennis event in the world. Besides actually watching the tennis matches, other activities closely associated with the "Wimbledon fortnight" are eating strawberries and cream, drinking champagne and hoping that it doesn’t rain.

11. How do you comment on the Political System in the USA? The U.S. Constitution established three separate but equal branches of government, the legislative branch (which makes the law), the executive branch (which enforces the law), and the judicial branch (which interprets the law).

Under a system of checks and balances, power is divided among different branches of government. This system is based upon the idea that each branch will be protective of its own power and, thus, prevent, intrusions upon it from other branches–thereby preventing any one branch of government from becoming too powerful.

12. What is the Open University in Britain? What do you think of this system?

In 1963 the leader of the Labour Party made a speech explaining plans for a ― university of the

air‖--an educational system which would make use of television,radio and correspondence courses. Study centers have been set up all over the country so that students can attend once a week,and once a year they will spend a week at one of the university s summer schools.

It has been nearly 30 years since the Open University started to offer courses. Now it is a very important part of the British educational system. Not only does it offer foundation courses like those mentioned above,it also carries out very advanced scientific researches,some of which lead to Master s or PHD Degrees. Many other

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