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1、What was the British Empire?What do you know about it?In what way is the Empire still felt in British and in the international field?and how are the old colonies connected at present?


1)The British Empire comprised the dominions,colonies,protectorates,mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United kingdom.


2)The effect of the old imperial role loes in 4 aspects.First,Britain still have a close relationship with the countries which uesd to be a part of empire in a organization called Commonwealth of Nations.Second,Britain had been a member of European Union since 1973,which is more important today in Britain's international relationship.Third,Britain is still a relatively wealthy country and member of the Group of Seven large developed economies.Fourth,the obvious effect lies in the make-up population.Immigration from some of those Commonwealth countries has produced a population which 1 in 20 are of non-European ethnicity.



2、What are some of the characteristics of the British constitutional monarchy?How has the English monarchy evolved gradually to the present constitutional monarchy? 什么是一些英国君主立宪制的特点吗?英国君主如何逐步发展到现在的君主立宪制吗?

1)The characteristics are as follows.First,it is the oldest institution of government in the world.Second,the Queen reigns but does not rule and the country is really run by Government led by Prime Minister.Third,the parliament is the right center of the country. 特点如下。首先,它是世界上最古老的政府机构。第二,女王统治但不规则和国家是由由总理领导的政府。第三,国家议会的权利中心。

2)The Civil war set the rights of the Parliament.The monarch was kept but his power was limited.The constitution was set up to guarantee rights of people.


3)What are the three big parties in the Uk?What are some

of the similarties and dissimilarities between the three parties?


1)The Conservative party,the labor party,the Liberal Democratic party.

2)Similarities and dissimilarities.


First,they all support the capitalist sysem.Second,they all are the active participants and supporters of representative democracy.Tird,tehy share some similar belief in their political and socio-economic ideology.


These 3 parties represent the interests of different economic policies duing their administration so that they have different opinions on government's role in social econmy.

First,Liberal Democratic party emphasize the need to change the Britian's constitutional arrangements to make the government more democratic and accountable.Second,labor party believes that a society should be relatively equal in economic terms and that the government should redistribute the wealth between the rich and the poor and provide a range of public services.Third,Conservative party is basically the party of

individual,protecting the individual's right to acquire wealth and spend it as he or she wants.








4、What are the three main areas in national economy?Describe the development of each of the three areas inthe UK economy.


1)The three main areas are primary industry,secondary industry and tertiary industry or services.


2)Primary industies:suchas agriculture,fishing and mining.Secondary indutries,which manufacture complex goods from those primary products.Tertiary industries,often described as services,such as banking,insurance,tourism,and the selling of goods.


First,agricultural sector is small but efficient,during the1960s,oil and gas were discovered under the North sea,with the extraction of North Sea oil and gas that sarted in the 1970s,until the 2000s the UK was self suffcient in energy,and the UK was expected to become a major importer of oil and gas by 2015.Second,a high-technology engineering industry has developed around the motor-racing business,and the UK is also the world's sixth largest manufacture by output.Third,Britain is a major international provider of services,accounting for about 10 percent of the world's exports of services.





1. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦)

2. Sometimes it lasts in love but sometimes it hurts instead. 有时候爱情能永远,但有时又如此伤人。《吸血鬼日记》

3. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰)

4. Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference. 态度是小事,但影响大不同。(丘吉尔)5. There's a crack in everything.That's how the light gets in. 万物皆有裂痕,那是光照进的地方。

6. Penny wise, pound foolish. 贪小便宜吃大亏。

7. Do something today that your future self will thank you for. 让未来的你,感谢今天的你所付出的努力。


英国的文化习俗 一、生活中的改变





























美国人感到难为情时,就实话直说。遇到别人特别客气的称赞或道谢时,美国人可能难为情而不知道该答什么话好。他们不是有意粗鲁无礼,他们其实是喜欢别人称赞他们的。除了特殊的假日,例如圣诞节,美国人通常不送礼。因此,你会发现美国人接到礼物的时候很难为情,他们如果没有东西回礼,就更加如此。他们大体上是个热情不拘礼节的民族。 介绍


介绍的时候,往往是连名带姓:“玛丽·史密斯,这位是约翰·琼思。”遇到这种情形,你可以自己决定该称呼那位女士为“玛丽”还是“史密斯小姐”。有时你们两人交谈,开头是称呼对方的姓,但没过多久,其中一人或彼此就直呼对方的名字了。你尽可自己选择,假若你不愿意一下子就直称别人的头字,而要依照你自己的习俗称呼别人,谁也不会觉得你没有礼貌。 你可能会注意到,美国人聚在一起聊天的时候,几乎从不提彼此的头衔。如果你平时听惯了不离头衔的谈话,就会觉得美国人说话不客气,不近人情。你高兴的话,尽可依你本国的习惯称呼别人的名衔。美国人听你这样说话,只是觉得有趣,觉得特别。不过,假若他们谈话时不称头衔,你可别不高兴。



至于从事其他行业的人,则称他为“先生”、“小姐”、“太太”(音密西斯)。“Ms.”(音密丝)对已婚和未婚的女士都可适用,近年来在美国已甚为通行。假若你跟一个美国人第一次碰面,不晓得他的头衔,但又要对他表示尊敬,那么可用“先生”或“夫人”称呼。被你这样称呼的人也许会想到你不知道该用什么称呼,于是会把正确的名称告诉你。不过,一个人除非是从事某种特殊职业,否则正式的头衔是不常用的。美国人注重友好的、不拘礼节的关系,而不注重地位头衔。美国人相信自己即使直称一个人的名字,仍一样可以对他表示尊敬。 服务










不过,你能够对美国一般的习俗做详尽的了解,也是有所裨益的。当然,这个题目范围太广,不能在这里详加探讨,下面所谈的,只是你访问美国时可能会遇到的一些常见情形。 有些私人问题,在甲国可以提出来谈,但在乙国则不应该谈。比方说,美国人可能会问你:“你在什么地方工作?”“你有几个孩子?”“你的房子有多大?”“你有没有假期?”在美国人看来,这些问题不算是纯粹的私人问题。他们往往问这些话,不外是要了解你与他之间的共同点,或作为交谈的开始。请你明白,问这些话的本意都是友善的,问者是对你表示关心,不是对你无礼。





The Difference between England and


Abstract: the paper is to show the difference between American and English in several aspects, such as geographical location, cultural environment and the most important part, the language.

Key words: Culture Environment,Education,food,Table Manner


The paper deals with the The Difference between England and America.Culture is a complex, including knowledge and belief, art, morals, law, custom, and members of the society who acquired as any other capabilities and habits.

1. Culture Environment{全民学英语英美文化}.

Britain is a traditional European country with long historical tradition continuity, and there had been a hierarchy in British society for a long time. And in UK there always has been a monarchy. So, the British likes to remember past times and old acquaintances, tends to be conservative, and behaves like a gentleman. All these need culture accumulation, and these character and qualities can’t be made if the country is without a long history. However, the U.S. is precisely without a very profound historical accumulation and is a young country. So, the Americans dare to innovate and stress emphasis on personal value. On the other hand, in the United States, there are not a lot of constrains. They feel free to make bold innovations.In addition, there is a great difference in the population composition of the two countries. The United States is a nation of immigrants, people comes from all countries and regions in the world. So, the culture of the United States shows different characteristics. People in American can accept and absorb all the culture factors all over the world. U.S. attitude toward foreign cultures is an open. However, comparing to the United States, the structure of the UK population appears to be simplex.

2.Geographical Location

The geographic location of the United Kingdom and the United States are different, one in European continent, one continent of the America. The United Kingdom, after a long period of development, has been very wealthy, so they are decent and conservative. But at the beginning of the United States, the United States is in a completely unfamiliar and barren continent, the first settlers were called pioneers, so they have to have the courage to take risks. If they do not have the spirit of adventure, they will not be able to survive, not to mention development, the hard environment eventually made the American spirit. In addition, the difference of European culture and American cultural contributes to the difference of the two countries. English suffers from the influence from other European countries, like France, Germany, but American was influenced by the culture of the other countries in American continent as well as the native Indian.{全民学英语英美文化}.

3. Education

From the educational philosophy of the education system in the United States, there are the characteristics of diversity and openness, international and flexibility, which enable the U.S. Department of Education to ensure educational equity and equality of opportunity to receive education, and take full advantage of the strengths of educational objects, so education is the dynamic, vibrant in American. It also reflects what the Americans have been in pursuit, the freedom and equality. British education has a rigorous style of study and impeccable the education system. The UK has a strict quality control system, the teaching quality evaluation and the research Assessment from all the school in England are announced to the world, higher

education institutions in the UK will be checked in a regular routine. This rigorous attitude is also reflected in the assessment of the student. Many students can’t get a degree if they fail in passing the assessment. Ethics and professionalism of English

teachers ensure the quality of its education. British education also reflects British conservative and rigorous character.

4.Traditional English food and confluent American food


British food, as we know, is very traditional. They don’t used to change their habit of food very frequently. Like other northern European cuisines, it majors heavily on meats, dairy products, wheat and root vegetables and a diet conductive to manual labor and red-faced citizens. The nineteenth century idea of a varied diet was one with different sorts of meat in it. Milk and vegetables were regarded as not only uneatable raw, but highly dangerous until boiled thoroughly. To a certain extent this is

understandable, in an era without refrigeration, when typhoid and cholera could strike even the wealthy; over-cooking everything was probably a sensible course to take. People in English have a special eating habit. Firstly, the main meal in England seems to be eaten in the evening. Secondly, a big English breakfast is not something that many English people seem eat. Most of them have a light meal of cornflakes or toast and marmalade, orange juice and coffee rather than the eggs, sausages, bacon, bread, mushrooms and tomatoes. Fish has always been an important food in Britain. There are jellied eels, kippers or bloaters or crabs and so on. But the most popular of all is fish and chips, splashed with vinegar and eaten in the street out of a paper bag . British have a habit of drinking tea. “A nice cup of tea, the stronger the better”is supposed to be the British cure for all problems. Although many different drinks can be found in Britain, tea is undoubtedly the favorite at any time of the day and is the essential basis of afternoon tea. This is a meal that can vary from tea and a biscuit to the cooked high tea with lots of cakes served in the north. In the south west of

England it is usually a cream tea, with home-made scones, strawberry jam and piles of thick clotted cream. People vary seldom have the thin cucumber sandwiches described in novels.

American cuisine : The United States is a land of delicious eating. The two concepts essential to understanding US food are regionalism and diversity, accent on the latter.

After all, Italian food differs from province to province and city to city as well. But key themes run through Italy’s food from south to north simply because its people have such strong roots in the Italian soil. Not so with the US. A nation of newcomers, its food reflects its origins. Long before Europeans set foot on American soil,

vibrant and healthy civilizations nurtured themselves off the bounty of the land. They taught the settlers to plant the holy trinity of Native American cuisine—corn, beans and squash. The settlers returned the favor by nearly exterminating their benefactors, but those three foods played a vital in defining American cuisine. They retain their importance today across the continent—grits, cornbread in the South, tortillas and pinto beans in the Southwest, baked beans and succotash in the Northeast and

pumpkin pie just about everywhere for Thanksgiving. American cuisine has come a long way since the early days of corn, beans and squash and along the way it has spawned some unforgettable food. Nonetheless the US remains a great place for great eating. Delicious regional styles remain a great place for great eating. Delicious regional styles remain and the new blood of immigrants sparks the imagination of the finest chefs while making for great inexpensive food in the cities. So come and get it.

5. Table Manner

At table, the British people pays special attention to table manners, such as, they should not talk at table, should not beat tableware as well. They have a strict

requirement on how to use knives and forks. While Americans on the relatively few occasions will do so, they like fast and convenient food, they do not require delicate or luxury dinner but they pay more attention to popular food. American favorite food is known as KFC, McDonald's and pizza hut, the junk food. This diet keeps the American obesity rate high. But from the diet habits, it is not difficult for us to find that the American do everything vigorously and resolutely and do not stick to the trifles.


In a word, there are lots of different conventions in the British and the

American’s culture. These conventions can be easy found in their daily life. They are all the symbols of the society development. They made us know a lot about the culture in the European countries. So if you have any interests on it, try to learn something about that and I’m sure we can benefit from it more . we can see that the British are sensitive, restrained, conservative, they tend to be rational rigorous and gentlemanly. By comparison, Americans are warm and cheerful, bold and frank. They are with a spirit of adventure and innovation.


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【摘要】 小学阶段是一个人的思想和情感形成的启蒙阶段,在这个阶段里,小学生从各科的教学中开始他们成长的步伐。作为小学英语教师,我们有必要让英美文化渗透于小学英语课堂,帮助学生了解中西文化差异,提高文化素质,有针对性地培养他们得体的跨文化交际能力,帮助他们学会在多元世界里生存和发展。本文将在跨文化教学的重要性和小学跨文化教学的操作两个方面提出一些肤浅的看法和建议。

【关键词】 英美文学 渗透 方法 跨文化交际



《英语课程标准》指出:“ 语言与文化有密切的联系,语言是文化的重要载体”,教师应当“努力使学生在学习英语的过程中了解外国文化”,帮助他们“不断拓展文化视野”,培养“跨文化交际的意识和能力”。另外,“接触和了解英美国家文化有益于对英语的理解和使用”,可以帮助学生“了解并尊重其他国家民族的优秀文化传统,更好地理解并热爱中华民族的优秀文化传统”,不仅如此,还可帮助学生“了解文化差异,培养爱国主义精神,增强世界意识”。因此,为了达到英语课程目标,我们必须重视英美文化在课堂上的渗透。这样做至少有以下好处。






词汇教学时的渗透。英语词汇的文化内涵是经过长期积淀而成的。一些很有文化内涵的成语、惯用语、谚语、俗语和格言等都来自成语典故、神话传说、文学典故、圣经故事或史实,教师在词汇教学过程中可为学生介绍其背景知识,让学生了解其来龙去脉,以便他们理解其深刻内涵。如:英语的星期五是friday,英美人很多都信仰基督教,而耶稣受难的日子正是星期五。因此就有了friday face,意指“愁眉苦脸”;black friday,意指“灾难的一天”。而星期日sunday,会使人想到耶稣复活、做礼拜、过节,常常有神圣、欢乐等含义。这样,人们就把最漂亮的衣服说成是sunday 。英国是一个岛国,历史上航海业曾一度世界领先,因此他们离不开水,而汉民族在亚洲大陆生活繁衍,人们的生活离不开土地。所以比喻花钱浪费,大手大脚,英汉语就不同,英语是spend money like water,而汉语是“挥金如土”。又如欧美人十分喜欢养狗,认为狗是人类最忠实的朋友,不会背叛。在此文化背景下,英语中的dog用以指代忠实的伙伴,有褒义色彩,lucky dog就是幸运儿的意思,和字面意思大相径庭。可见,同一个词在不同的文化背景中意义不同。我们要想掌握和运用一种语言,就


课文教学时的渗透。新标准外研版教材所选的内容具有很强的文化气息,不仅教参给老师提供了丰富的文化背景教学素材,而且多媒体课件还准备了适合小学生学习的文化背景材料。我们教师应当有意识地去利用甚至仔细地去挖掘这些内容,为我们教学所用。这无疑将对学生深入了解课文起到重要作用。在教学过程中,教师应该以解决问题和完成任务为目的,在交换信息的同时,让学生充分参与,大胆实践,体验中西方文化的差异。比如:对收受礼物,接受邀请或获得帮助时的感激,两种语言是大有差别的。对于别人送来的礼物,中国人往往要推辞一番,接受以后一般也不当面打开,而在英美文化中,人们对别人所送的礼品;一般都会当面打开称赞一番,并且欣然道谢。对于别人的赞美,中国人通常用否定说法以示谦虚,但英美人往往以thank you来接受。外语学习本身是枯燥和难于理解的,但因有了文化背景而生动、鲜活。






英美文化 - 选择

1. The British Isles are situated in the ___ of Europe.

A) northwest

2. The highland zone is an area of high hills and mountains in the ___ and ___ of Britain.

B) north ; west

3. The ___is sometimes called the backbone of England.

D) Pennine Chain

4. The ___River is the longest river in Britain.

D) Severn

5. ___ in Northern Ireland is the largest lake in the United Kingdom.

A) Lough Neagh

1. The seven Conurbations in Britain contain ___ of the population of the country.

B) one-third

2. The English people are descendants of ___.

C) Anglo-Saxons

3. Middle English took shape about a century after the ___ Conquest.

C) Norman

4. London dialect was once disseminated throughout the country NOT because London was a ___ center.

D) linguistic

5. Scotland has had a separate ____ system.


1. Generally speaking, the British Parliament operates on a ___ system.

B) two-party

2. In Britain, the parliament general election is held every ___ years.

C) five

3. The policies of the Conservative Party are characterized by pragmatism and ___.

D) a belief in individual

4. The Labor Party affected the British society greatly in that it ___.

A) set up the National Health Service

5. Other countries have “citizens”. But in Britain people are legally described as ___


B) subject

6. Elizabeth Ⅱ succeeded to the throne in ___

B) 1952

7. Which of the followings is not RIGHT to describe the Prime Minister?

D) The head of the country

8. The third largest political party in Britain is the ___

B) Liberal Party

1. The British economy achieved dominance by the ___

C) 1880s

2. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the UK economy?

C) There has been a period of steady decreasing of living standards.

3. Which of the following livestock has the biggest number in the UK?

D) Sheep

4. Which of the following used to be the last independent car company in the UK?

C) Germany and Russia

5. In the aerospace industry, which two countries are ahead of Britain?

B) The us and Russia

6. Which of the following is NOT a company in the energy sector?


1. What kind of secondary schools now receives the largest number of students?

C) Comprehensive schools

2. Which is incorrect to describe the independent schools?

C) They are free-free schools

3. Open University communicates with its students mainly by___

D) all of the above

4. Which of the following is a privately funded university in Britain?

D) The University of Buckingham

5. If a student wants to go to university in Britain, he will take the exam called___

A) General Certificate of Education – Advanced

1. Easter commemorates the ___

D) Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ

2. On which day is Halloween celebrate?

A) October 31

3. Where are the international tennis championship held?

B) Wimbledon

4. Which one in the following is famous for its literary and dramatic criticism?

D) Punch

5. Which one of the following is NOT particularly British Christmas tradition?

C) Eating chocolate eggs

1. ___ was the United Kingdom’s first woman Prime Minister

C) Margaret Thatcher D)Winston Spenser Churchill

2. Margaret Thatcher’s nickname is ___

B) the Iron Lady



1. ―British history has been a history of invasion.‖ Please illustrate this point with the examples from the text. How did each of the invasions influence English culture?

British history has been a history of invasions. Before the first century AD Britain was made up of many tribal kingdoms of Celtic people: a powerful culture originating in central Europe. Then in 43AD Britain was invaded by the Roman empire, and England and Wales (though not Scotland or Ireland) became a part of the Roman empire for nearly 400 years. Two more groups of invaders were to come after the English: from the late 8th century on, raiders from Scandinavia, the ferocious Vikings, threatened Britain's shores….

2. What is the political problem in Northern Ireland?

Until 1921 the full name of the UK was "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland", not only "Northern Ireland", because the whole island of Ireland was politically integrated with Great Britain, and had been since 1801, while Britain's domination of the Irish dated back centuries even before that date. But Irish desires for an independent Irish state were never lost, and one of the key issues in late nineteenth century British politics was a campaign in parliament for what was called "home-rule"—Irish political control of Irish affairs. The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in 1914, but the process was overtaken by the First World War and was suspended for the duration of the war.

3. What were some of the causes of the American Revolution? Explain the Declaration of independence?

the causes of the American Revolution

(1), The French & Indian War (1756-1763)

The desire of England to levy more taxes on the colonies and the desire of the colonists to have more right and freedom made the conflicts intensified

(2), The Enlightenment

It provided the colonists with a theoretical & philosophical weapon against the British rule and marked the formation and maturity of the new nation

(3),The British Mercantilist Policy, such as Sugar Act, Currency Act, Stamp Act, Tea Act, etc.

(4),Boston Tea Party (1773)

In 1773, the British government passed the Tea Act, which permitted the British East India Company to sell tea directly to its agents in the colonies. This Act made many merchants angrier than ever with the British.

(5), Outbreak: The first shot in Lexington (April, 1775)

The Declaration of Independence (1776), drafted in June, 1776, is at once a national symbol of liberty and a monument to Jefferson as a statesman and author. In lofty eloquence and unforgettable phrasing, the document expressed the convictions in the hearts and minds of the American people.

4. Tell what you know about the British media.

British people usually read a national or local newspaper, watch TV, listen to the radio at their leisure time.

The British media plays an important role in British political system: inform the population about problems the country may be facing and what the government is doing to solve such problems. In engendering a national culture: people from different field all share the same experience, they could discuss what they had read or seen——British are all part of the British culture.

The British media has the following functions:


• Provide people with information about political and social issues

• Provide weather reports

• Carry advertising

• Used for educational purposes

• Provide a forum for people to express their views

• Seek advice

• Give people entertainment

• Serve for the political and economic system

• Work as a monitor

5. How did the Cold War begin? What role did the US play in this?

There were deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions immediately after the Second World War.

(1) Underlying causes: (i) Ideological ; (ii) Economic (iii) Power rivalry

(2) Immediate Causes Leading to the Cold War: (i) Extension of Russian influence in Europe ; (ii) The reactions of the United States; (iii) Poor relations between the United States and the Soviet Union .

6. Discuss King John and the Great Charter.

King John is the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England. He was the king of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

The Great Charter has been also known as Magna Carta which King John was forced to sign in 1215. Its most important clauses were: no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; no freeman should be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of his property except by the law of the land; the Church should possess all its rights; London and other towns should retain their ancient rights. But the Great Charter said nothing about serfs. The Great Charter has been regarded as the foundation of English liberties, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the powers of the king.

7. What do you think of the British foreign relations?

The general direction of Britain’s foreign policy is mainly decided by the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Britain’s relationship with international institutions

1) one of the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council — Russia, China, the US, France and the UK

2) its membership in the European Union (Britain joined the European Economic Community in 1973, which has been called European Union since 1993. Britain’s participation in the EU remains controversial.)

3) involvement in NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was set up in 1949. The author believes that the purpose of NATO is to protect member states against aggression, to provide a foundation for security in Europe, and to provide a forum for transatlantic defense cooperation.)

4) a member of the Commonwealth, a voluntary association of states which is made up of mostly of former British colonies.

5. its relationship with the US. British and American policy-makers share the general ideas in many respects. However, Britain’s ―special relationship‖ with the US has gone through many ups and down.

8. Discuss the education system in the USA.

The federal government influences education and contributes to school’s development.practice it.All states require young people to attend schools. Every child in America is guaranteed up to 13 years of education

(1) Elementary Education--- Elementary School (grammar school)—from kindergarten to grade 8 .Almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: mathematics; language arts; penmanship(书法); science; social studies……

(2) Secondary education--- Junior high school/ Senior high school/ Vocational schools and technical school (prepare for occupations)

(3) Higher education in the USA began with the founding of Harvard College in 1636.1/3 high school graduators go on for higher education.There are four categories of higher education institutions: 1),the university; 2),the 4-year undergraduate institution: the college- most of which are not part of a university; 3),the technical training institution: learning variety of technical skills: hair styling, business accounting; 4),the 2-year, or community college.

9. How do you comment on the holidays and festivals in Britain? Many festivals and holidays in Britain are centuries old. Every town, village and hamlet in Britain has its own traditions, some involving months of careful planning and preparations of costumes and choreography, others requiring simply a worrying desire to make a complete and utter fool of oneself. There are a lot of holidays, such as Christmas, the Boxing Day, Easter, Bonfire Night (Guy Fawkes Night) ,etc.

10. Tell what you know about ―Football hooligans‖ and ―Wimbledon‖.

Football was invented in Britain. It is a rough fast game played in winter and early spring. Today, it is one of the most popular sports in Britain. Millions of people watch the FA Cup games. But in recent years, people are much concerned about football violence ―Football hooligans‖ are supporters of rival teams. They sometimes clash before, during and after matches and occasionally run riot through the town, breaking windows and beating each other up.

Tennis was invented in Britain and owes its origins to the church. Wimbledon is a suburb in London. In Wimbledon, the world’s best players gather to compete in the annual international tennis championship. It is one of the major events of the British

sporting calendar and probably the most famous tennis event in the world. Besides actually watching the tennis matches, other activities closely associated with the "Wimbledon fortnight" are eating strawberries and cream, drinking champagne and hoping that it doesn’t rain.

11. How do you comment on the Political System in the USA? The U.S. Constitution established three separate but equal branches of government, the legislative branch (which makes the law), the executive branch (which enforces the law), and the judicial branch (which interprets the law).

Under a system of checks and balances, power is divided among different branches of government. This system is based upon the idea that each branch will be protective of its own power and, thus, prevent, intrusions upon it from other branches–thereby preventing any one branch of government from becoming too powerful.

12. What is the Open University in Britain? What do you think of this system?

In 1963 the leader of the Labour Party made a speech explaining plans for a ― university of the

air‖--an educational system which would make use of television,radio and correspondence courses. Study centers have been set up all over the country so that students can attend once a week,and once a year they will spend a week at one of the university s summer schools.

It has been nearly 30 years since the Open University started to offer courses. Now it is a very important part of the British educational system. Not only does it offer foundation courses like those mentioned above,it also carries out very advanced scientific researches,some of which lead to Master s or PHD Degrees. Many other


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