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Topic:Water resources around the world are falling deficient. Analyze the possible reasons and provide your suggestions.


Access to water is vital to every living creature on the planet. Despite the fact that approximately two thirds of the earth surface is covered with all forms of water bodies, countries worldwide are faced with different levels of water shortages. Some reasons can be cited to explain the emergence of this problem.


A trigger for water crisis is people’s lack of knowledge of the value of the water. Given the ready availability of water in many countries, people tend to believe that the reserve of water in the world is infinite. Notwithstanding the

increased expenditure on water supply, water is perceived as a cheap commodity by many families. Many people see water a perpetual resource. For this reason, the unbridled use of water is commonplace, accelerating the exhaustion of this valuable resource.

第一句话是段落的中心句,后文为展开论述支持论点。第二三四句话讲的是人类对水资源重要性的认识是如何的缺乏,最后一句话是前面论述的逻辑推论,句与句之间逻辑性强, 连接顺畅。

Rapid population growth is another force contributing to the water crisis. Not only does it reduce the amount of water available for manufacture, farming and households, but also has a profound effect on the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. Massive urban and industrial growth fuels unprecedented demands, often at the expense of aquatic ecosystems. Many water resources are not replenished before being re-used and depleted.

第一句话是段落的中心句。后面的分句逐层论述为什么人口增长助长了水资源危机。使用了not only ……but also 的句式,巧妙地连接两个原因。

Human-induced pollution is worthy of concern as well, a factor regarded by many as the root cause of the rapid loss of drinkable water. The untreated discharge of various pollutants such as heavy metals, organic toxins, oils and solids in water bodies is believed to have severe impacts. Industrialization, meanwhile, results in abnormal climate and

biological destruction. While some areas have become barren, other areas are hit by floods. Floods ravage everything, including reservoirs, dams and cannel. The water supply problem will intensify.


这三段是文章的主体部分,在一般情况下,原因通常可以归分成三段。一般来说最重要的,最有说服力的原因应该放在第一段,第二段第三段的重要性依次降低。这样可以使文章具有逻辑性和层次性。每段的段首用一句话简明的概括本段的中心论点。接着对每段的主体句进行支持性论述,分别使用了推理和例证的方法。这样不仅段落之间逻辑严密,段落内部也逻辑明朗,使文章整体富有说服力。文章注重了长短句的变换,富有节奏感。表示同一个意思时作者也变换了不同的表达方式以增加文采:如表达……的原因时使用了“a trigger for…., another force contributing to…, worthy of concern as well”。

As noted above, the steady loss of water is attributable to inappropriate usage, population growth and pollution. In order to tackle the above-mentioned problems, one can adopts various approaches, besides the existing strategies, such as restoration of ecosystems, rainwater harvest. New technologies can help ease water shortages, by tackling pollution and making used water recyclable. In agriculture, water use can be made far more efficient by introducing new farming techniques (e.g. drip irrigation). Drought-resistant plants can help cut the amount of water needed.

按照逻辑顺序,分析原因之后应该提出对策,文章最后一部分即对策部分。作者用 “As noted above……”承上启下,接下来用举例的方式给出对策。


2.It might arouse their sadistic impulses.极限运动也许会诱发一个人施虐的冲动。


Some people believe that personal happiness is directly related to economic success.

Others believe there are other factors.

Discuss the two sides and give your opinion.


The pursuit of happiness has long been the dream of generations of human beings. They have always been puzzled Get Word ("puzzled"); by the essence of happiness. What is happiness? Is it closely related to one’s economic success? Will one’s financial success lead to happiness directly? Personally Get Word ("Personally"), I don’t agree that one’s economic success is the only prerequisite of one’s happiness in life.



Happiness may fall into different categories Get Word ("categories");. An old saying goes like this: “One man’s meat is another man’s poison”. Happiness may mean being a successful and respected leader of a company, or a stable and comfortable job in a large international company, or a big flat downtown, a fantastic set of furniture, etc. However, happiness can also be a harmonious and peaceful family, or a hospitable and considerate friend, or just a smile, a gesture, a hint. In fact, happiness may be composed of anything you could ever think of. At least, we may have two types of happiness: [wv]spiritualGetWord("hospitable and considerate friend, or just a smile, a gesture, a hint. In fact, happiness may be composed of anything you could ever think of. At least, we may have two types of happiness:

[wv]spiritual"); happiness and materialistic happiness.


One’s materialistic happiness is dependant on one’s economic success, though not completely. Without a strong and steady economic background, one could never imagine an easy and simple life, let alone an affluent and luxurious one. If you aren’t able to afford a house, a car, or even a book, anybody would be horrified at the mere mention of this kind of life. Definitely, some people will feel happy right away if their basic demands for life are satisfied. However, we have to admit that these people still need to be successful materialisticallyGetWord("materialistically"); to some degree.


On the other hand, one’s success in economy may not necessarily lead to one’s spiritual happiness. As we all know, money doesn’t get you everything and some even say that money is the root of all evilsGetWord("evils");. One’s

financial success may be built on the sacrifice of time, health and love, which are the three most essential elements of spiritual happiness. All of us are not new to this picture: a successful business man tasting loneliness alone with a broken heart.


In my point of view, one’s economic success is only one of the key factors of happiness, but never the only one. To be happy, one needs to be both spiritually and materially satisfied Get Word ("satisfied"); though each of us may have a totally different picture of happiness.{中卫传统节日,的作文}.


Meanwhile, the violence rate is rising in UK due to the global terrorism. Unlike the ordinary gangster and robbers who is armed daggers and knives, a large number of international terrorists are equipped with semi-auto rifles and massive destruction weapons. Proper measures must be taken to limit the uneven contrast of power and the great efforts should be made to protect civilian from the harm of terrorist attack. However, there is an old saying “combat poison with poison”, say, an overall upgrading of UK police equipments couldn‘t be better to meet the needs. It is all necessary that every police carries a pistol while they are on duty, that would be the practicable way to ensure the public security in Briton.

Topic: the government should control the amount of violence in films and on television has been a contentious discussion. Views on the topic vary greatly.

大作文:some people say the purpose of education is to prepare individuals to be useful adults for society. Others say the purpose of education is to achieve personal ambitions.Do you agree or disagree?


My personal answer to the purpose of education is that students and teaching staff should hold critical attitudes. It means that education involves the temporary and ultimate goals. The ultimate goal of education is the service of society. However, whether or not achieving it should take the accomplishment of personal goals as the prerequisite.

On one hand, students are expecting to acquire the survival skills with the aid of schooling training in the professional skills and thinking abilities. Personal ambitions also consist of the access to their preferred working fields and the progression in the professional fields. Besides, they finally win the social respect and acknowledgement.


When it comes to whether or not taking the social service to the society as the education goal,views differed greatly. However, I firmly believe that the accomplishment of personal wishes does not contradict to the willingness to the service of society. Graduates have to acquire the decent jobs, reasonable salary and social respect first and

simultaneously contribute to the society. Take the excellent architects as an example, they design the fashionable structures for people’s living and aesthetic demand while they can acquire adecent income as well.










1. 用副词开头,常见的情形有:

(1) 副词修饰全句

Luckily, he didn’t know my phone number; otherwise, he would bother me.

Incredibly, Helena got straight A in her school report this semester.

Interestingly, cats and dogs can hardly get along well in a house.


obviously undoubtedly

apparently fortunately

clearly unfortunately

incredibly luckily

unluckily surprisingly


这些副词大多数表示说话人对全句的看法,在意思上相等与 “It is ... 形容词that ...” 。 e.g:

Obviously,he is nervous about the test. =It is obvious that he is nervous about the test.

Unfortunately,he tripped over and fell in the mud. =It is unfortunate that he tripped over and fell in the mud.

(2) 强调副词

Hurriedly,the man drew me a scratch map to show me the direction.

Dangerously,the drunkard sped down the street.

Slowly and gently,snowflakes were drifting down from the sky.

(3) 副词表示某一地域或某一领域

Geographically,Canada is the biggest country in the world.

Financially,she is independent, but emotionally she is dependent.

2. 用插入语开头,表示说话人的态度,或使句子的意思更加准确:

Strangely enough,Jennifer does not enjoy sunshine and beach.

Generally speaking,winter in Vancouver is gloomy.


no wonder no doubt

in other words in my opinion

in conclusion in fact

as a matter of fact


3. 用形容词、并列形容词或形容词短语开头,修饰句子的主语,表示主语的特征或状态:

Frantic,the young mother rushed out the door with the baby in her arms.

Tasty and crisp,potato chip are a favorite snack for both children and adults.

Happy at his good marks at school,the little boy skipped on his way home.

Desperate and hopeless,the poor man committed suicide.

4. 用分词、分词短语开头:

(a) 修饰句子主语,表示主语所处的状态或主语同时进行的另一个较谓语动词次要的动作:

Scared,the girl moved timidly and cautiously into the dark room.( 状态)

Chased by my dear pet cat, the mouse dashed into a small hole.( 状态 )

Spoiled by his parents,the naughty boy always insists on things he wants.( 状态)

Puffing and hugging,he finished his run.( 另一动作)

Looking at herself in the mirror,she fingered her silk scarf on her shoulder.( 另一动作)


(b) 修饰谓语动词,表示原因、时间等{中卫传统节日,的作文}.

Lying down on the couch,he felt much relaxed.( 时间)

Feeling bored,she turned on the TV and switched from channel to channel.( 原因)

Wanting to find out the business hour,she called the store.( 原因)

Having completed the form,he mailed it out immediately.( 时间)







托福写作开头运用提问的方式,可以让你的开头段与众不同的托福写作方法。提问法是以问题为导向,引起读者兴趣,引导你的读者跟随你的思路走进你的思维世界。利用提问的方式,还能够引发读者的思考,从而让读者能够对这个问题产生共鸣。此外,提问的表达方式有时还能够起到强调的作用,利用反问的方式,能够帮助考生强调自己的观点。例如:There has been undesirable trend in recent years towards the worship of money. A recent survey showed that X percent of respondents ranked getting rich as their top priority,compared to X percent only a few years ago. Why do people fail to realize that wealth does not necessarily bring happiness?从这个开头段中可以看出,首先也是题目要讨论的话题,但是最后一句用一个“反问”的方式,提出要讨论的话题,还起到了强调的作用,能够引起读者共鸣,引发思考。

(b) 修饰谓语动词,表示原因、时间等


1、According to the first graph, it can be seen that ______________, it can also be concluded from it that


2、There is an interesting and instructive picture which goes like this: ______________.

3、Nowadays there is a growing concern over ______________. Many people like ______________, while others are inclined to ______________.

4、Nowadays, it is common to ______________. Many people like ______________ because ______________. Besides, ______________.

5、 ______________, just like many other things, are preferred by ______________. While being attacked by the idea that ______________, some people consider ______________. They point that ______________.

6、Everything has two sides and ______________ is not an exception, it has both advantages and disadvantages.

7、For years ______________ had been viewed as ______________. But people are taking a fresh look at it now.

8、It has stipulated by the government that ______________. To this stipulation, many people respond actively because ______________.

9、______________ is a common occurrence in our daily life. Whatever we do, ______________ can't be avoided.

10、______________ has become a hot topic among people, especially among the young, and heated debates are right on their way.

11、Recently, ______________ has become the focus of the society, and in this way.. People swarm to


12、______________ has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life. It has brought us a lot of benefits but created some serious problems as well.

13、Man is now facing a big problem-______________, which is becoming more and more serious. First,

______________ second, ______________.{中卫传统节日,的作文}.

14、Nowadays more and more people are beginning to be aware of the seriousness of ______________.

15、It is only during the last years that man has become generally aware that ______________.

16、There is an old saying, ______________. It's the experience of our forefathers, however, it is correct in many cases ever today.















亲爱的各位游客朋友,欢迎您来到多彩中卫,我是您本次中卫之旅的导游×××,很荣幸为您服务。广东导游夸美味,桂林导游赞山水;杭州导游诗想随,济南导游咏泉水;西安导游一张嘴,北京导游跑断腿;新疆导游长的美,中卫导游唱的好。我就是那个既能说又能唱的导游,我的工作理念是:放眼全球,献身旅游;广交朋友,其乐无穷!我的导游方针是:唱歌跟着感觉走,旅游跟着小X走。请大家跟着我一起出发,走进“沙漠水城、花儿杞乡、休闲中卫”。 中卫概况:


地处“西陲要路”、黄河金岸的中卫,地势险要,自古就是塞上古城、军事重镇、兵家必争之地,是丝绸之路上的一个驿站,不同民族、不同国家的商贩们在这里补给,然后走进茫茫腾格里沙漠。它以宽大的胸怀接纳和安抚着一队又一队穿越沙漠而来的疲惫的骆驼商队。 中卫土地肥沃,特产丰饶,是黄河中上游第一个自流灌溉市,素有“天下黄河富宁夏,首富中卫”之说。曾经的丝绸古道上悠扬的驼铃传递着“大漠孤烟、长河落日”的情怀;






中卫话是全国最优美的语言之一,动听、有节奏、富有表现力,易于引起对方听话的兴趣,因为这是多种民族语言经过千百年的交汇而形成的。据说是唐朝国语。如果大家感兴趣,我可以给您来一段。这是中卫的第五好,好听。中卫是硒砂瓜之乡、枸杞之都。优越的地理环境和富饶的物产资源,给饮食文化添上了浓郁的一笔。得黄河之惠泽,物产丰庶,土地肥沃,猪羊满圈,鸡鸭成群,牛肥马壮,瓜果飘香。特别是黄河鲤鱼、黄河鸽子鱼、香山羊羔肉等闻名遐迩,品种繁多,荤素皆有,色香味美,各具特色。来过此地的人无不称赞“物美价廉,留香齿颊,别有风味”。 这里还有石头缝里长出的“硒砂瓜”,香飘千万家;这里是“中国枸杞之乡”,红红的枸杞演绎着健康幸福的生活。这是第六好,好吃。中卫到底有多美,要多美、有多美。 中卫的三张名片:




第三张名片:绿色名片。中卫市绿地面积达1400万平方米,为了给市民创造一个宜居、休闲、生态美的居住环境,中卫秉承“环境就是资源、生态就是资本”的理念,发展不忘环境保护,保护环境促进发展,坚持以绿为美、以水为源、以净为荣、以善为尚、以人为本,将黄河融入城市,让城市拥抱黄河,既要金山银山,更要绿色青山。开发建设了香山湖、应理湖等生态环境景观,新建了城市景观水系、五馆一中心等城市地标性工程,腾格里沙漠湿地保护项目,不但阻止了腾格里沙漠的南侵,还相当于一个加湿器,提升了城市空气质量,改善了城市生态环境。这些黄河湿地保护开发项目曾获“迪拜国际改善居住环境最佳范例奖”、“中国人居环境范例奖”,先后荣获“中国人居环境建设杰出贡献奖”、“中国最佳绿色生态城市”。 现在,一个生态秀美、和谐富裕、充满发展活力的新中卫正呈现在大家的眼前!















"The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."



Sample Essay

The intensity of today's media coverage has been greatly magnified by the sheer number and types of media outlets that are available today. Intense competition for the most revealing photographs and the latest information on a{中卫传统节日,的作文}.

subject has turned even minor media events into so-called "media frenzies". Reporters are forced by the nature of the competition to pry ever deeper for an angle on a story that no one else has been able to uncover. With this type of

media coverage, it does become more and more likely that anyone who is subjected to it will have his or her reputation tarnished, as no individual is perfect. Everyone makes mistakes. The advances in technology have made much

information easily and instantaneously available. Technology has also made it easier to dig further than ever before into a person's past, increasing the possibility that the subject's reputation may be harmed.



The above statement is much too broad, however. "Anyone" covers all people all over the world. There are people whose reputations have only been enhanced by media scrutiny. There are also people whose reputations were already so poor that media scrutiny could not possibly diminish it any further. There may very well be people that have done nothing wrong in the past, at least that can be discovered by the media, whose reputations could not be diminished by media scrutiny. To broadly state that "anyone" subjected to media coverage will have his or her status sullied implies that everyone's reputation worldwide is susceptible to damage under any type of media scrutiny. What about children, particularly newborn children? What about those people whose past is entirely unknown?{中卫传统节日,的作文}.


Another problem with such a broad statement is that it does not define the particular level of media scrutiny. Certainly there are different levels of media coverage. Does merely the mention of one's name in a newspaper

constitute media scrutiny? What about the coverage of a single event in someone's life, for example a wedding or the birth of a baby? Is the media coverage of the heroic death of a firefighter or police officer in the line of duty ever going to diminish that person's reputation? It seems highly unlikely that in these examples, although these people may have been subjected to media scrutiny, these individual's reputations are undamaged and potentially enhanced by such exposure.


Without a doubt, there are many examples of individual's whose reputations have been diminished by media scrutiny. The media's uncovering of former U.S. President Bill Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky will most likely overshadow the entire eight years of his administration. Basketball superstar Michael Jordan's sterling reputation has been

tarnished more than once by the media; first by media coverage of his gambling habits, then most recently (and in a much more harmful manner) by news reports of his marital infidelities and the divorce from his wife of thirteen years. Fame and fortune can turn an ordinary individual into a media target where reporters will stop at almost nothing to "dig up dirt" that will sell more newspapers or entice more viewers to watch a television program. It could even be

argued that media scrutiny killed Princess Diana as her car sped away from the privacy-invading cameras of reporters in Paris. There is no doubt that there are a large number of people who have been hurt in one way or another by particularly intense media scrutiny.

毫无疑问,也有许多例子能证明一个人的名声会被媒体审视所毁损。媒体对美国前总统Bill Clinton与Monica Lewinsky的风流韵事的揭露极有可能会将其八年的执政生涯置于阴影之中。超级篮球明星Michael Jordan一世英名也被媒体不止一次地玷污,首先是被有关其赌习的媒体报道,其次是最近--且以一种更具致命性伤害的方式--被有关他婚姻不忠以及与其结婚13年的妻子分道扬镳的报道。当媒体记者不择手段去挖掘某些可促使其报纸销量大增的"猛料"时,或去诱惑更多的观众观看某一电视节目时,名和利就会将一个普通人转变为媒体追踪的目标。我们甚至可以提出这样一种论点,即正是媒体的审视将Diana王妃置于死地,随着她的汽车去竭力逃脱巴黎街头的记者们那侵犯隐私的相机镜头。毫无疑问,肯定有许多人被极其强烈的媒体聚焦以一种方式或另一种方式所伤害。

In summary, it seems impossible that for every person that is subjected to media scrutiny, his or her reputation will eventually be diminished. Millions of people are mentioned in the media every day yet still manage to go about their lives unhurt by the media. Normal individuals that are subjected to media scrutiny can have their reputation either

enhanced or damaged depending on the circumstances surrounding the media coverage. The likelihood of a diminished reputation from the media rises proportionally with the level of notoriety that an individual possesses and the

outrageousness of that person's behavior. The length of time in the spotlight can also be a determining factor, as the longer the person is examined in the media, the greater the possibility that damaging information will be discovered or that the individual will do something to disparage his or her reputation. But to broadly state that media scrutiny will diminish anyone's reputation is to overstate the distinct possibility that, given a long enough time and a certain level of intensity of coverage, the media may damage a person's reputation.



To state that the study of history is only valuable if it is relevant to our daily lives is to ignore the value that history has beyond the day-to-day activities of human beings. It would seem to be a rather shallow statement that implies that humans only live just to survive rather than planning for the futures of their children and the environment.



"People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."

Sample Essay

Teamwork as a whole can naturally produce an overall greater productivity through the concept of "synergy", where the total of the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts. But the idea that people work more productively in teams rather than as individuals is going to vary greatly between the types of teams that are organized, the end reward or motivation for both the team and the individuals, as well as the individuals themselves.

Regarding individuals, some people are born with the desire to succeed, no matter what the situation or task that they are facing. These people may evolve into the classic "Type A" personalities that work ferociously because they are driven by an internal fire that says they must always be doing something, whether individually or as part of a team.

Other people may desire to be less socially involved or are very highly competitive with other people. For these people, their work is most productive as individuals, because the very idea of cooperating with other people limits their

effectiveness and efficiency because they simply do not want to be a part of the team. Whether this mindset is innate or developed over time does not matter, it is merely the state of their being and neither motivation nor rewards can generate inside them the desire to work collectively as a team.

Some people are highly motivated by social interaction and the desire to work with others towards a collective effort. Obviously these individuals are at their most productive when working as part of a team. Organizational behavioral studies have shown that Asian cultures are much more likely to develop this type of collective behavior as opposed to

the more individualistic behavior associated with Western cultures. It could naturally be assumed then that there may be cultural values that can determine whether people are at their most productive individually or as part of a team.

Another variable is the end reward that is involved with the task at hand. Will the rewards be greater if the team

works together towards a common goal, or are the rewards more geared toward individual performance? To the extent that the individual is motivated by the end reward, obviously his or her performance inside of a team may be more or less productive with respect to the entire team, depending on how the performance is rewarded. Individual goals may interfere with the group performance. Synergies may not be achieved because the individuals are not working towards a whole "sum" but rather towards an individual reward. Productivity thus will vary for each person as a team member or as an individual depending on the degree to which that person is motivated by an individual or overall team reward.

Finally, the degree of productivity of a person will depend upon the type of team that is organized. Is the group composed of equally contributing individuals? Does the group have an outstanding leader that can motivate both the individuals and the team as a whole? From a pure productivity standpoint, the presence or absence of a charismatic and exceptional leader can make all the difference whether a person would be more productive as a part of a team or as an individual. Personality types that work well together can prove to be much more productive as part of a team than as individuals, and vice versa.

Fundamentally, measures of productivity depend greatly on the individuals themselves. The dilemma facing leaders in all areas of life is how to best assess these individuals to determine how to best harness their capabilities to reach their ultimate productive capabilities. Whether a person is more productive alone or while working in concert with

others is one of the great challenges that leaders and managers must face to accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently.








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